Difference between revisions of "Seaxes"

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''For blades over 14" in length see [[Langseax]]''<br>
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{{Top
''For blades under 7" in length see [[Knife]]''<br>
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|TopCategory= Master at Arms <!-- e.g. Living History -->
== Rulings ==
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|SubCategory= Seaxes & Knives        <!-- e.g. Crafts -->
===Authenticity Summary===
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|PageStyle  = Item          <!-- Category / Item / Article -->
<div class="">
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}}
 +
''For blades over 14" in length see [[Langseaxes]]''<br>
 +
''For blades under 7" in length see [[Knives]]''<br>
  
{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"
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===Seaxes===
|-
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[[File:L-G-SharpSeax-GA.jpg|left|thumb|300px|A Seax and Sheath]]
! colspan="7" style="min-width:400px" | Authenticity Summary
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The short '''Seax''' is also known as a '''Scramasax''', a '''Hadseax''' or just a '''Sax'''. The term Scramasax comes from Gregory of Tours writing in AD 575, who speaks of "boys with strong knives (cultris validis), which they commonly call scramasaxes (scramasaxos)." in his History of the Franks (IV, 52). It is not known if this name continued in use into the Viking Age. <br>
|-
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It is likely that small heavy seaxes were in use up until the end of the C10th but that as a weapon it possibly really belongs to the pre-Viking period. They have only one sharp edge and a thick reverse edge.<br>  
! Type of Seax!! Very Early<br>(793-899) !! Early<br>(900-979) !! Mid<br>(980-1041) !! Late<br>(1042-1079) !! Very Late<br>(1080-1179) !! Angevin<br>(1180-1215)
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Although primarily an everyday tool, in battle it could be used to finish off a felled opponent, and in the case of some ceorls, the scramaseaxe could have been their sole short-arm. Examples found have both just plain iron blades or pattern welded ones as well as inlaid blades. <br>
|-
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Most blades were broad, heavy and with an angled back sloping in a straight line towards the point and this is the typical Saxon style.<br>
! Seaxes with blades from 7” to 10”
+
The Scandinavian style had a more curving back and the Frankish style a more curving blade. Blades were often inlaid with gold, silver, copper or bronze wire beaten into fine channels carved into the iron blade. The grip was of wood, bone or antler and was sometimes carved or decorated. It has attached to the tang of the blade purely by friction and possible glue, never by rivets. The grips never have a crossguard or pommel. <br>
| colspan="4" style="text-align: center; background:#98FB98"  | Encouraged
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Scramseaxes were always carried in a sheath of folded leather sewn down the blunt side of the blade, which was often decorated. <br>
| colspan="1" style="text-align: center; background:#FFFF99;" | Optional
 
| colspan="1" |
 
|-
 
! Seaxes with blades from 10” to 14”
 
| colspan="1" style="text-align: center; background:#FFFF99;" | Optional
 
| colspan="5" style="text-align: center; background:black;color:white"  | Unacceptable
 
|-
 
! Wood handles
 
| colspan="6" style="text-align: center; background:#98FB98"  | Encouraged
 
|-
 
! Wooden handles with bark
 
| colspan="6" style="text-align: center; background:black;color:white"  | Unacceptable
 
|-
 
! Bone handles
 
| colspan="6" style="text-align: center; background:#FFFF99;" | Optional
 
|-
 
! Worked antler handles
 
| colspan="6" style="text-align: center; background:#FF9F00"  | Allowable
 
|-
 
! Unworked antler handles
 
| colspan="6" style="text-align: center; background:black;color:white"  | Unacceptable
 
|-
 
! Composite wood / bone / stone handles
 
| colspan="6" style="text-align: center; background:#FF9F00"  | Allowable <br> RICH
 
|-
 
! Decorated knife sheath
 
| colspan="3" style="text-align: center; background:#98FB98"  | Encouraged
 
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center; background:#FFFF99;" | Optional
 
| colspan="1" |
 
|-
 
! Undecorated knife sheath
 
| colspan="6" style="text-align: center; background:#FF9F00"  | Allowable
 
|-
 
! Unsheathed knives
 
| colspan="6" style="text-align: center; background:black;color:white"  | Unacceptable
 
|-
 
! Double/single edged knives (not seaxes)
 
| colspan="4" style="text-align: center; background:black;color:white"  | Unacceptable
 
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center; background:#98FB98"  | Encouraged
 
|-
 
! Sheath horizontally hung
 
| colspan="3" style="text-align: center; background:#98FB98"  | Encouraged
 
| colspan="1" style="text-align: center; background:#FFFF99;" | Optional
 
| colspan="1" style="text-align: center; background:#FF9F00;" | Allowable
 
| colspan="1" |
 
|-
 
! Sheath vertically hung
 
| colspan="4" | 
 
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center; background:#98FB98"  | Encouraged
 
|-
 
! Rondel & bollock daggers
 
| colspan="6" style="text-align: center; background:black;color:white"  | Unacceptable
 
|}
 
</div>
 
  
===MaA Summary===
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{{Bottom
'''[https://regia.org/members/docs/2015%20MaA%20Regulations.pdf#page=11 MaA regulations for seaxes]'''
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|SubCategory= Seaxes & Knives        <!-- e.g. Crafts -->
 
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|PageStyle = Item          <!-- Category / Item / Article -->
====NOTES====
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|FacebookGroup= Regia Members Info      <!-- Regia Members Info -->
i) The blade and tang must be made from steel. They must be rust and burr free and must be of good overall construction and condition.<br>
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|FacebookPath = groups/120034758089222<!-- groups/1234/ -->
ii) The blade edge must be no less than 2mm and no more than 5mm (1/5”) in thickness. In cross section, the edge may be rounded or round shouldered but must not be square edged. The edges of a weapon must include its cutting surface and any back edges also.<br>
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|SocialMedia = No            <!-- Yes / No -->
iii) Seaxes with a blade exceeding 200mm (8”) in length must be made entirely of spring steel.<br>
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}}
iv) The seax tip should be rounded to no less than an 18mm (11/16”) diameter. (i.e. the diameter of a 1999 5 pence piece). Any angle on the back of the seax that is must be rounded over.<br>
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[[Category:Seaxes & Knives]] [[Category:Weapons]]
v)The blade should not be parallel-edged (back edge to cutting edge).<br>
 
vi) The blade should not be parallel-sided.<br>
 
vii) The blade may have a narrow fuller in one or both sides.<br>
 
viii) Seaxes may have small ferrules on the hand-grip but must not have a properly developed crossguard or a pommel.<br>
 
 
 
 
 
== History ==
 
The short '''Seax''' is also known as a '''Scramasax''', a '''Hadseax''' or just a '''Sax'''. The term Scramasax comes from Gregory of Tours writing in AD575, who speaks of "boys with strong knives (cultris validis), which they commonly call scramasaxes (scramasaxos)." in his History of the Franks (IV, 52). It is not known if this name continued in use into the Viking Age. <br>
 
It is not uncommon for burials in the Viking age to contain more than one knife. It is likely that small heavy seaxes were in use up until the end of the C10th but that as a weapon it possibly really belongs to the pre-Viking period. <br>
 
Although primarily an everyday tool, in battle it could be used to finish off a felled opponent, and in the case of some ceorls, a mid to large sized scramaseaxe could have taken the place of a sword. Although it contained much the same amount of iron to make as a sword, the scramaseaxe was an easier weapon to make with only one sharp edge and a thick reverse edge. Examples found have both just plain iron blades or pattern welded ones as well as inlaid blades. <br>
 
Seaxes were also almost certainly just everyday tools: butchery knives, woodworking tools, eating knife, etc..  Most blades were broad, heavy and with an angled back sloping in a straight line towards the point and this is the typical Saxon style.<br>
 
The Scandinavian style had a more curving back and the Frankish style a more curving blade. Blades were often inlaid with gold, silver, copper or bronze wire beaten into fine channels carved into the iron blade. The grip was of wood, bone or antler and was sometimes carved or decorated. The hilt was usually without a pommel or crossguard, whilst the tang went all the way through the smaller seax handles and was clenched over at the end of the grip. <br>
 
Scramseaxes were always carried in a sheath of folded leather sewn down the blunt side of the blade, which was often decorated. It is unlikely that a small scramaseax could kill a heavily padded or mailed man, probably just serving to irritate him. It's main employment was probably as an eating and all-purpose 'pocket' knife. The blunt reverse edge of the seax could be used as a hammer to break bones to extract the marrow, or even hammered through materials via it's blunt back as a sharp wedge. It also gives a lot of strength to the whole knife. <br>
 
 
 
===Images of Seaxes (C8th to C11th)===
 
 
 
* 775-800AD St. Andrew Sarcophagus
 
* C8th England, Derbyshire, Repton. Stone carving, [CAMERON 2000:p.200] [HINTON 2005: p.105]
 
* 850-900AD Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale, Lat. 9987. Psychomachia
 
* C9th Paris, BNF, Lat. 8085 fol.57r. Virtue, armed with a sword and seax, combating a Vice. [BNF]
 
* C10th Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale, ms. 10066-77  Psychomachia f.112r-139r
 
* England, Dorset, Cranborne. Silver strap-end  [HINTON 2005: p.113]
 
* Middleton Warrior [BAILEY 1980:pl.14]
 
* 975-1000AD Cambridge, Corpus Christi College MS23, f.23r.[PARKER]
 
* 1025-1050AD Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, MS lat 8824 - seax.jpg [OHLGREN 1992]
 
* 1076AD Bayeux Tapestry [WILSON 1985:pl.6, 7]
 
 
 
<gallery>
 
Scotland, St Andrew Sarcophagus.jpg|St. Andrew Sarcophagus
 
Repton_Stone.jpg|Repton Stone
 
Paris,_Bibliothèque_Nationale_de_France,_Lat._8085_seax.jpg| Paris, BNF, Lat. 8085
 
England, Middleton Warrior, Stone Carving.jpg|Middleton Warrior
 
Brussels,_Bibliotheque_Royale,_ms._10066-77_seax.jpg|Brussels Bib. ms. 10066-77
 
Cranborne_Silver_strap-end.jpg|Cranbourne Strap End  
 
Paris,_Bibliothèque_Nationale,_MS_lat_8824_-_seax.jpg|Paris, BNF, Lat. 8824
 
Bayeux_Tapestry_seax.JPG|Bayeux Tapestry
 
</gallery>
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
===Literature (C9th to C11th)===
 
* Beowulf c.1000AD
 
** "Grendel's mother; the hard man of conflict then heaved, now that he was enraged, the deadly foe, so that she fell to the floor; she again him quickly  gave hand-reward with wrathful grips and clutched him against herself; hen, weary in spirit, he stumbled, the strongest man, warrior on foot,  so that he was in a fall; then she bestrode the guest in her hall, and drew her seax, broad and bright-edged; she wished to avenge her son, only offspring;" lines 1538-1547 [http://www.heorot.dk/beowulf-rede-text.html heorot.dk]<br>
 
** "Then again the king himself gathered his wits, drew a slaughter-seax bitter and battle-sharp, that he wore on his byrnie;" lines 2702-2704 [http://www.heorot.dk/beowulf-rede-text.html heorot.dk]<br>
 
** "beside him lies his life-contender sick with seax-wounds" line 2903-2904 [http://www.heorot.dk/beowulf-rede-text.html heorot.dk]<br>
 
 
 
 
 
<br>
 
===English Seax Blades (C9th to C11th)===
 
[[File:Seax Blades.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Seax Blades]]
 
Out of 128 knives found from Coppergate York, only 1 can be classed as a seax. [CAMERON 2000: p.64-65]<br>
 
 
 
{|
 
|- valign="top" id="BC1"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_Dimmock_Cote.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=Dimmock's Cote]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, Cambridge, River Cam at Dimmock's Cote'''
 
:Current Location- University of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge
 
:Type- ? 800AD
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: ?
 
:Comments- 'large scramasax with a groove along the back of the blade' [BJORN 1940:p.69].
 
:Bibliography- [BJORN 1940:p.69]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BC2"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_Cumwhitton_634.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=Cumwhitton 634]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, Cumwhitton, Plough Soil'''
 
:Current Location- Tullie House Museum
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Blade Width: 30mm; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: 220mm 
 
:Comments- 'Patern-welded blade with remains of possible leather sheath still attached' [PATERSON 2014:cat.634].
 
:Bibliography- [PATERSON 2014:p.50,51 & Cat.634]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BC3"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_Cumwhitton_885.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=Cumwhitton 885]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, Cumwhitton, Grave 5'''
 
:Current Location- Tullie House Museum
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: 182mm; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: 270mm 
 
:Comments- 'Part pattern welded. Has a horn handle with inlaid silver wire.' [PATERSON 2014:cat.885].
 
:Bibliography- [PATERSON 2014:p.110 & Cat.885]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BK1"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_Sittingbourne.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=Sittingbourne]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, Kent, Sittingbourne'''
 
:Current Location- British Museum 1881,0623.1
 
:Type- Wheeler IV 900-925AD
 
:Find Date- 1881
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: ? 
 
:Comments- 'inlaid with copper, bronze, silver and niello.' [WILSON 1964:cat.80].
 
:Bibliography- [WILSON 1964:cat.80] [[http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details/collection_image_gallery.aspx?assetId=476352&objectId=95276&partId=1 British Museum]]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BL1"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_London_ALG84_588_381.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London'''
 
:Current Location- London Museum ALG84[588]381
 
:Type- Wheeler III/II 1000-1100AD
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: 247mm  
 
:Comments-  
 
:Bibliography- [[http://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/Online/object.aspx?objectID=object-146014&rows=1&start=0 Museum of London]]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BL2"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_London_1856_Honey_Lane.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London 1856]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London, Honey Lane'''
 
:Current Location- British Museum 1856,7-1,1413
 
:Type- Wheeler IV 978-1016AD
 
:Find Date- 1856
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: 327mm 
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [WILSON 1965:Cat.43]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BL3"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_London_1879_Park_Street.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London 1879]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London, Park Street'''
 
:Current Location- British Museum 1879,12-22.1
 
:Type- 800-1000AD
 
:Find Date-
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: 266mm 
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [WILSON 1965:Cat.81]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BL4"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_London_Princes_Street.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London Princes St]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London, Princes Street'''
 
:Current Location- London Museum 29.94,17 (Wheeler no.21)
 
:Type- 900-1000AD
 
:Find Date- 
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: ? 
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [WHEELER 1935:p.]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BL5"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_London_1859_Thames.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London 1859]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London,Thames'''
 
:Current Location- British Museum 1859,1-22.12
 
:Type- 800-1000AD
 
:Find Date-
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: 232mm 
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [WILSON 1965:Cat.50]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BL6"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_London_A1781.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London A1781]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London, Thames'''
 
:Current Location- London Museum A1781 (Wheeler no.25)
 
:Type- 900-1100AD
 
:Find Date- 
 
:Size- Blade Length: 247mm; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: 334mm 
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [WHEELER 1935:p.]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BL7"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_London_A9313.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London A9313]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London, Thames at Blackfriars'''
 
:Current Location- London Museum A9313 (Wheeler no.8)
 
:Type- 800-1000AD
 
:Find Date- 
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: ? 
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [WHEELER 1935:p.]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BL8"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_London_A10721.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London A10721]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London, Thames at Brentford'''
 
:Current Location- London Museum A10721 (Wheeler no.11)
 
:Type- 700-900AD
 
:Find Date- 
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: ? 
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [WHEELER 1935:p.]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BL9"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_London_A13935.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London A13935]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London, Thames at Brentford'''
 
:Current Location- London Museum A13935 (Wheeler no.22)
 
:Type- 900-1100AD
 
:Find Date- 
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: ? 
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [WHEELER 1935:p.]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BL10"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_London_O2136.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London O2136]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London, Thames at Brentford'''
 
:Current Location- London Museum O2136
 
:Type- 500-700AD
 
:Find Date- 
 
:Size- Blade Length: 181mm; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: ? 
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [MUSEUM OF LONDON]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BL11"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_London_A24399.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London A24399]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London, Thames at Fulham'''
 
:Current Location- London Museum A24399 (Wheeler no.18)
 
:Type- Wheeler IV 900-1000AD
 
:Find Date- 
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: ? 
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [WHEELER 1935:p.]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="BL12"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:seax_London_A24909.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London A24909]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London, Thames at Fulham'''
 
:Current Location- London Museum A24909 (Wheeler no.17)
 
:Type- Wheeler III/II 900-1100AD
 
:Find Date-
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Blade Width: ?; Blade Thickness: ?; Total Length: ? 
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [WHEELER 1935:p.]
 
 
 
* England, London. One find from cheapside could have had a blade of 25cm. [CAMERON 2000: p.64-65]
 
 
 
|}
 
 
 
<br>
 
===English style Seax Sheathes (C9th to C11th)===
 
[[File:Seax Sheaths.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Seax Sheaths]]
 
Seax sheaths are made from substantial leather up to 3mm thick and closed by rivets about 4 to 5cm apart. In England there are 12 finds of Seax sheaths out of a total of 61 [CAMERON 2000: p.64-65]<br>
 
 
 
{|
 
|- valign="top" id="O1"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_Aachen.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=Aachen]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''Germany, Aachen'''
 
:Current Location- Aachen Cathedral Treasury (Okasha 1992 cat.1)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- before 1860
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Total Length: 470mm ; Total Width: ?
 
:Comments- Contains a name in Old English
 
:Bibliography- [OKASHA 1992:p.64 cat.1 pl.IV]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="T5918"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_Trondheim_T5919.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=Trondheim_T5918]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''Norway, Trondheim, Sor-Trondelag '''
 
:Current Location- ? (Okasha 1992 cat.12)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Total Length: ? ; Total Width: ?
 
:Comments- Contains a name in Old English
 
:Bibliography- [OKASHA 1992:p.64 cat.12 pl.V]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="T5919"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_Trondheim_T5919.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=Trondheim_T5919]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''Norway, Trondheim, Sor-Trondelag '''
 
:Current Location- ? (Okasha 1992 cat.13)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Total Length: ? ; Total Width: ?
 
:Comments- Contains a name in Old English
 
:Bibliography- [OKASHA 1992:p.64 cat.13 pl.V]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="C.DLS4"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_Dublin_DLS4.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=Dublin DLS4]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''Ireland, Dublin, Christchurch Place'''
 
:Current Location- ? (Cameron 2007 cat.DLS 4)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Total Length: 367mm ; Total Width: ?
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [CAMERON 2007:p.]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="C.DLS5"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_Dublin_DLS5.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=Dublin DLS5]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''Ireland, Dublin, Christchurch Place'''
 
:Current Location- ?, E122:12660 (Cameron 2007 cat.DLS 5) (Okasha 1992 cat.2)
 
:Type- ? 1050-1075AD
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Total Length: 295mm ; Total Width: ?
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [CAMERON 2007:p.] [OKASHA 1992:p.64 cat.2]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="C.DLS11"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_Dublin_DLS11.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=Dublin DLS11]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''Ireland, Dublin, Fishamble Street'''
 
:Current Location- ? (Cameron 2007 cat.DLS 11)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Total Length: 405mm ; Total Width: ?
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [CAMERON 2007:p.]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="C.349"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_Gloucester_sf.65.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=Gloucester 349]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, Gloucester, 11-17 Southgate Street'''
 
:Current Location- Gloucester City Museum, GLRCM 85/1968 sf.65 (Cameron 2000 cat.349) (Okasha 1992 cat.3)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- 1968
 
:Size- Blade Length: 170mm ; Total Length: 190mm ; Total Width: 68mm
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [CAMERON 2000:p.] [OKASHA 1992:p.64 cat.3]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="C.350"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_Gloucester_sf.7.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=Gloucester 350]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, Gloucester, Berkeley Street'''
 
:Current Location- Gloucester City Museum, GLRCM 19/79 sf.7 (Cameron 2000 cat.350) (Okasha 1992 cat.4)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: 200mm ; Total Length: 415mm ; Total Width: 70mm
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [CAMERON 2000:p.] [OKASHA 1992:p.64 cat.4]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="C.114"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_Hexham.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=Hexham 114]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, Hexham'''
 
:Current Location- Hexham (Cameron 2000 cat.114) (Okasha 1992 cat.5)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ? ; Total Length: 100mm ; Total Width: ?
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [CAMERON 2000:p.] [OKASHA 1992:p.64 cat.5]
 
 
 
*York 115
 
*York 214
 
*York 215
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="C.205"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_York_sf.754.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=York sf.754]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, York, Parliament Street'''
 
:Current Location- ? sf.754 (Cameron 2000 cat.205)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Total Length: ? ; Total Width: ?
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [CAMERON 2000:p.112]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="C.206"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_York_Coppergate.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=York Coppergate]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, York, Coppergate'''
 
:Current Location- ? (Cameron 2000 cat.206)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Total Length: ? ; Total Width: ?
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [CAMERON 2000:p.]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="C.207"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_York_sf.753.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=York sf.753]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, York, Parliament Street'''
 
:Current Location- ? sf.753 (Cameron 2000 cat.207)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Total Length: ? ; Total Width: ?
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [CAMERON 2000:p.113] 
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="C.347"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_York_sf.4332.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=York sf.4332]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, York'''
 
:Current Location- ? sf.4332 (Cameron 2000 cat.347)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Total Length: ? ; Total Width: ?
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [CAMERON 2000:p.135]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="C.144"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_London_Trump_Street.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London Trump Street]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London, Trump Street'''
 
:Current Location- Museum of London, MOL ? (Cameron 2000 cat.144)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- ?
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Total Length: ? ; Total Width: ?
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [CAMERON 2000:p.]
 
 
 
|- valign="top" id="C.145"
 
|width="100pt"| [[File:sheath_London_Cheapside.jpg|thumb|130x150px|left|alt=London Cheapside]]
 
|width="600pt"| '''England, London, Cheapside'''
 
:Current Location- Museum of London, MOL 11674 (Cameron 2000 cat.145) (Okasha 1992 cat.6)
 
:Type- ?
 
:Find Date- 1927
 
:Size- Blade Length: ?; Total Length: 390mm ; Total Width: ?
 
:Comments-
 
:Bibliography- [VINCE 1991] [CAMERON 2000:p.208] [OKASHA 1992:cat.6]
 
 
 
|}
 
 
 
<br>
 
===A few Seax Sheathes from the C8th===
 
* Dover, Buckland, grave 145, leather sheath dated to 700-750AD
 
* London, River Thames nr. Westminster Bridge, metal fittings, late C8th
 
 
 
== References ==
 
{{Ref|Book=Bailey 1980}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Bersu & Wilson 1966}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Bjorn & Shetelig 1940}}
 
{{Ref|Book=British Museum Website}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Cameron 2000}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Cameron 2007}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Hinton 2005}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Museum of London Website}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Ohlgren 1992}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Okasha 1992}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Parker Library}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Paterson 2014}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Vince 1991}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Wilson 1964}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Wilson 1965}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Wilson 1985}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Wheeler 1927}}
 
{{Ref|Book=Wheeler 1935}}
 

Latest revision as of 21:32, 30 October 2018

Seaxes

For blades over 14" in length see Langseaxes
For blades under 7" in length see Knives

Seaxes

A Seax and Sheath

The short Seax is also known as a Scramasax, a Hadseax or just a Sax. The term Scramasax comes from Gregory of Tours writing in AD 575, who speaks of "boys with strong knives (cultris validis), which they commonly call scramasaxes (scramasaxos)." in his History of the Franks (IV, 52). It is not known if this name continued in use into the Viking Age.
It is likely that small heavy seaxes were in use up until the end of the C10th but that as a weapon it possibly really belongs to the pre-Viking period. They have only one sharp edge and a thick reverse edge.
Although primarily an everyday tool, in battle it could be used to finish off a felled opponent, and in the case of some ceorls, the scramaseaxe could have been their sole short-arm. Examples found have both just plain iron blades or pattern welded ones as well as inlaid blades.
Most blades were broad, heavy and with an angled back sloping in a straight line towards the point and this is the typical Saxon style.
The Scandinavian style had a more curving back and the Frankish style a more curving blade. Blades were often inlaid with gold, silver, copper or bronze wire beaten into fine channels carved into the iron blade. The grip was of wood, bone or antler and was sometimes carved or decorated. It has attached to the tang of the blade purely by friction and possible glue, never by rivets. The grips never have a crossguard or pommel.
Scramseaxes were always carried in a sheath of folded leather sewn down the blunt side of the blade, which was often decorated.

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Seaxes & Knives




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