Life in the Clergy
With the basic geography of the Church set out it is possible to look at the ecclesiastical rank structure. There were two 'orders' of clergy: the Minor Orders and the Major Orders. The Minor Orders were the trainees of the Church and consisted of the doorkeepers, lectors, exorcists and acolytes. The Major Orders consisted of the deacons, priests and bishops.
To simplify matters we can ignore the Minor Orders since many of them were villagers with no interest in becoming full time clergy. For example, the doorkeeper did most of the jobs we would now associate with the modern verger.
The deacons were men in training for the priesthood. There were a number of jobs they could not do, such as hear confession or celebrate Mass, but they were able to assist at services and carry out many of the lesser functions around the church. The priests were men who had completed their training, who had a definite vocation for the ministry, and who had been 'ordained'. Once ordained, a priest could hear confessions, etc., and was given a parish church to work in. A priest was known by the title 'Father'. In most cases that was the pinnacle of the man's clerical career.
Every diocese was run by a bishop, and his headquarters became the largest and most important church in the diocese. The bishop had a seat of office which, in latin, was called a 'cathedra', so his church became known as the cathedral church. The bishop had a body of priests to assist him in running the diocese, called canons. The most important of these was the archdeacon, who was the bishop's administrative assistant.
At the highest level, in charge of the provinces, were the two archbishops, of Canterbury and York. They also had canons to assist them, however the archdeacons were replaced by 'suffragan' bishops, from the latin 'suffragator', meaning 'supporter'.
There are more senior grades, such as cardinal, but these take us beyond Anglo-Saxon England.
Monasteries were places where men could go and devote their entire life to God. Most of their waking hours were governed by a set of rules, laid down by St Benedict in the sixth century. Since the latin for a rule is 'regula', they are usually known as 'regular clergy'. In contrast, the priests were called 'secular clergy', from the latin 'saecularis', meaning 'of the world' - in other words, they were not shut up in a monastery all the time.
Monastic life was not easy. The Rule of Saint Benedict really does account for every hour of a monk's life, with prayer and work. The work the monks initially had to do was first in the field, or building the monastery, but later the monks began the important task of copying and translating manuscripts. Their life was supposed to be spent entirely inside the monastery, with little contact with the outside world, as the following extract from the Rule shows:
- 'When brethren return from a journey, they should lie prostrate on the floor of the oratory and ask for the prayers of all for any faults that may have overtaken them on their journey, such as the sight or hearing of an evil thing or idle chatter.'
Clearly the outside world was seen as a very bad influence. However, some contact was inevitable, if only to sell the monastery's produce at market. Ælfric wrote a Colloquy to help with learning latin at the end of the tenth century, which includes a reference to monks being traders or merchants (ciepemenn), so perhaps practical necessity over-rode the Rule from time to time.
Large monasteries were known as abbeys, whilst smaller ones were called priories and were often set up near an abbey. Abbeys were dotted throughout the country, and there was always one attached to, or associated with, the cathedral. The monk in charge of an abbey was the abbot, elected for life by the bretheren. His deputy was the prior (which was also the title of the monk in charge of a priory). Within the abbey, some monks had particular jobs to do and specific titles, such as the cellarer. On the whole though, it would seem that monastic life was not for the ambitious. However, of the 116 bishops appointed to English sees between 960 and 1066, no fewer than sixty-seven were monks. In addition to abbeys for men, there were also those for women, the most famous being Nunnaminster at Winchester, founded by King Alfred's widow Ealhswith. These were run along exactly the same lines as the houses for men.
Article by Mike Farmer 1992