Sewing Terms

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Some Sewing Terms

Bias edge.JPG

Bias edge

This is where a reinforcing strip of cloth is wrapped over the raw edge of the neck hole or cuffs. It is usually of the same material and colour as the tunic or shirt. Although we use the term bias edge, the cloth used does not need to be cut on the bias (diagonal). A strip 5cm (2”) wide is usually sufficient.



This is where an additional reinforcing strip of cloth is sewn onto an edge of a piece of clothing around the neck hole and cuffs. The strip is usually of the same material on shirts but can be of a contrasting colour on tunics. Facings can only be up to 8cm (3”) wide before 1042AD. After this wider facings may be used.

For women, only the RICH can have a facing around the hem of their dress before 1042AD (Very Early and Early periods). After 1042AD faced hems are Optional for all classes.

For men, facings around the hem of the tunic are classed as Unacceptable before 1042AD. As for women, they are considered Optional after 1042AD. Members portraying Carolingian or Frisian women or men have the option of having a facing around their hem before 1042AD as it appears that faced hems were originally a mainland European fashion.

Hem stitch.JPG

Hem stitch

The two most simple hem stiches are the hem stich and running stich. Hems should always be turned in towards the body. The hem stitch is largely invisible from the outside of the garment and so modern cotton thread can be used. The running stich is more visible and so an authentic linen or fine woollen thread needs to be used.

French Seam.JPG

French seam

French seams are achieved by first sewing a seam, on what will be the outside of the garment, and then turning the garment inside out and sewing another seam to cover the first.

Piled wool / Rogg

Also known as a woollen shaggy piled cloak or rug and similar to a modern flokati. A woollen cloth with tuffs of unspun wool either pulled or woven through it.


Plain tabby and twill weaves are the most common cloth in Regia’s period. Other optional weaves are broken diamond and herringbone.

Plain tabby weave.JPG

22 Twill weave.JPG

Broken Diamond.JPG



Secular Clothing

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Regia members can discuss this on the Regia Members Info group.